所有电力的价格均不平等:随时间变化的价格101

时钟95330_640在美国,电力部门占 超过三分之一 该国每年的温室气体排放量,对气候变化的贡献超过其他任何部门,包括交通运输。

此外,这些年来,电力成本急剧增加,并且 投射的 继续他们的上升趋势。公用事业和监管机构在促进可再生能源,提高电网效率和减少有害污染方面取得了长足的进步。但是,通过更好地管理用电情况,客户也可以成为解决方案的一部分-特别是在那些用电最多的时期 生产起来又贵又脏.

在“关键高峰”期间,电价昂贵

一天中的发电成本和与之相关的碳排放量会发生很大变化,具体取决于任何时间点的电力需求。例如,当发生热浪,许多客户下班后开始为房屋降温时,需求飞涨,并创造了所谓的“临界峰”。

In order to meet this increased demand, the most expensive power plants – which remain unused for most of the year 和 generally tend to emit more pollution – are turned on. Enabling customers to curb their electricity use during these heat waves could offset the need for these dirty, expensive plants, resulting in lower 价格 有害污染少。例如,客户可以将空调的温度提高几度,或者在大多数人用电的时间之外运行大型电器,例如洗碗机,洗衣机和烘干机。

[鸣叫“关于电的肮脏秘诀:一天中更便宜,更清洁www.edf.org/cQq“]

不幸的是,大多数客户没有获得有关这些关键时刻何时发生的信息,并且几乎没有动机来抑制这些时候的需求,因为这样做既无济于事,也没有受到惩罚。取而代之的是,无论热浪或其他电力需求旺盛的时期,他们在一天中的所有时间都为用电支付相同的价格。

时变电价

Many utilities have begun to realize that this type of pricing is hardly efficient. Pricing electricity in a way that reflects its 真正 cost can help utilities reduce overall costs 和 pass these lower 价格 onto customers. For example, utilities can charge customers different rates at different times of the day or throughout the month – this is known as ‘time-variant electricity pricing’.

能源定价图形

This type of pricing allows customers to have greater control over their electricity bill. 通过 reducing electricity use during times when it’s more expensive to produce, they can take advantage of cheaper electricity being offered at other times. Furthermore, environmentally-conscious customers can reduce their carbon emissions by timing their electricity use. Essentially, time-variant pricing empowers electricity customers by bringing them into the market 和 allowing them to affect it with their behavior: if we would all shift away from periods of high demand, electricity 价格 would fall for everyone.

以下是几种不同类型的时变电价:

  • 实时定价(RTP) – In this type of pricing, electricity rates vary frequently over the course of the day. Rates change over very short intervals – such as an hour – 和 the customer receives a unique price signal for each interval, reflecting the costs of generating electricity during that time. 一般ly, this type of pricing is used for larger commercial customers, who are better suited to respond to such high price variability. They may, for example, use technologies that turn off machines when 价格 rise above a certain limit. In 纽约,大型商业客户将面临强制性的每小时定价。但是,有两个伊利诺伊州的公用事业, 英联邦爱迪生和亚美伦,已开始为住宅客户实施RTP。这种类型的定价需要 智能电表,它提供全天的详细用电量数据,从而使公用事业公司可以测量和记录每小时的用电量。
  • 使用时间定价(TOU) – The most commonly utilized form of time-variant pricing, TOU pricing breaks up the day into two or three large intervals 和 charges a different price for each. Rates can be divided into off-peak 价格 (generally during the middle of the night to early morning), semi-peak 价格 (daytime 和 evening), 和 peak 价格 (occurring during periods of highest demand, usually afternoon/early evening); these rates remain fixed day-to-day over the season. This simple method of pricing encourages customers to shift their electricity use away from times of the day when demand is higher. However, it does not necessarily encourage reduced electricity use during critical peak times over the year, such as during heat waves. Most utilities throughout the country have a voluntary TOU rate available to customers, although overall, 采用率仍然很低.
  • 关键峰值定价(CPP) – With this type of pricing, customers receive a signal (such as an email, text, or phone call) advising them that the price of electricity will increase dramatically in the next day or even in coming hours. The customer can avoid paying high 价格 by reducing electricity use during these periods of high demand 和 benefit from a slightly lower, off-peak price relative to the flat rate. Critical peak pricing has been implemented by several utilities (for example, 俄克拉荷马州天然气&Electric, 萨克拉曼多市政公用事业区亚利桑那州公共服务),无论是通过试点计划还是采用新的费率结构,都可以取得很高的成功。在某些试点计划中,客户在这些关键高峰期间减少了用电量, 50% 当他们可以使用诸如空调等能够自动响应价格信号的技术时。
  • 关键峰值回扣(CPR) –在本质上与CPP相似,在这种情况下,公用事业公司向客户支付他们能够减少的每千瓦时电力(相对于关键高峰时段通常使用的电量)。这些回扣已推出或提供给以下地区的所有客户 华盛顿特区巴尔的摩 在先前的试点项目中取得成功之后。

如上所述,有许多复杂的定价程序可以更好地反映电力的真实成本。甚至可以将它们分组在一起:例如,CPP和CPR费率可以放在TOU费率之上,从而有助于应对每天发生的定期高峰(当客户回家或业务如火如荼时),同时还要处理较罕见的临界峰值时刻,例如在热浪期间。

尽管全国各地时变电价仍未广泛使用,但越来越多的公用事业和客户逐渐意识到按日,月和年的时间对电价进行不同定价的好处,并意识到动态费率结构是电价不可或缺的一部分。 更清洁,更高效的能源系统.

有关更多信息,请查看我们的新产品 时变定价情况说明书.

此条目发布在 清洁能源, 电动ity Pricing, 网格现代化。收藏 永久链接。目前,评论和引用均已关闭。

3 评论

  1. 埃里克·安德森
    发表于一月27,2015在8:29下午 | 固定链接

    Thanks for clear overview of the 4 pricing strategies. How are these 价格 communicated to customers? is pricing pushed out to customer or does customer pull the information into energy management system?

    • 贝亚·斯派勒(Beia Spiller)
      发表于2015年1月28日下午12:21 | 固定链接

      Pricing can be communicated to the customer in several ways. For time-of-use pricing, the 价格 faced by communicated to the customer in each time frame (peak, off-peak, semi-peak) is agreed upon before signing up 和 does not change within the year. For critical peak pricing, generally the critical peak price is also agreed upon beforehand. What needs to be communicated to the customer is the timing of the critical peak event. This can be achieved through an email, phone call, or text the day before or the day of the event (critical peak rebates work in the same manner). For real-time pricing, the price can be communicated to the customer in several ways. For example, the utility can post the hourly 价格 the day before or the day of on a customer-accessible website. Alternatively, the customer can own an in-home-display that shows the current price. Furthermore, smart thermostats can receive a signal from the utility which communicates that the price is high, allowing the air conditioner to be cycled off 和 on to reduce consumption during high-peak times.

  2. 发表于2015年1月28日上午10:47 | 固定链接

    本文很好地描述了电力公司传统上提供的基本使用时间/时变/动态定价类型。成功受到限制,可能是因为“仅在需要用电时才向我充电”不受欢迎。本文未提及得克萨斯州的时变优惠—北美最具活力的竞争性零售电力市场。在这里,您可以找到固定一周中大部分时间价格的优惠(“flat, stable pricing”)在合约期内(12个月)。在一周中的指定时间支付少量费用以换取免费的电力服务。“Free Nights”(下午9:00至上午6:00),“Free Saturdays” 和 “Free Weekends”有两个流行的选择。通过在电力成本较低时发出明确的定价信号(0.00美元),零售电力提供商(REP)鼓励消费者改变行为并改变其用法。这使服务该客户的成本降低了。 (每个客户’每15分钟计算一次其实际使用情况,以确定REP服务该客户的费用。)“carrot” of “free electricity”而不是被殴打“stick” of high costs. “Free”听起来很浪费。它不是。在竞争激烈的零售电力市场中,愿意的买卖双方寻求经济上有效的结果。服药75年后“prices”通过关税,德克萨斯州允许REPs了解如何通过创新的定价,技术和服务来最佳地获取和保留客户。

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